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Why More Closely Related Organisms Have More Similar Cytochrome C? Quick Answer

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[Wilson et al, 1977] More closely related organisms will have more similar cyt c because they have more recent common ancestor. The more recent the common ancestor, the less time for DNA mutations to occur. Changes in DNA lead to changes in mRNA leads to differences in protein amino acid sequences.Because the DNA sequence determines a protein’s amino acid sequence, a gene shared by two closely related organisms should have similar, or even identical, amino acid sequences. That’s because closely related species most likely diverged from one another fairly recently in the evolutionary span.2. Cytochrome C: A Case Study. Taxonomists routinely use the protein cytochrome C for DNA bar-coding and species identification because its amino acid sequence tends to be highly conserved among related species, with little variation between members of the same species (Hebert et al., 2003).

Why More Closely Related Organisms Have More Similar Cytochrome C?
Why More Closely Related Organisms Have More Similar Cytochrome C?

Table of Contents

Why are organisms with more similar amino acid sequences more closely related?

Because the DNA sequence determines a protein’s amino acid sequence, a gene shared by two closely related organisms should have similar, or even identical, amino acid sequences. That’s because closely related species most likely diverged from one another fairly recently in the evolutionary span.

Why is cytochrome c used to compare species?

2. Cytochrome C: A Case Study. Taxonomists routinely use the protein cytochrome C for DNA bar-coding and species identification because its amino acid sequence tends to be highly conserved among related species, with little variation between members of the same species (Hebert et al., 2003).


cytochrome c

cytochrome c
cytochrome c

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Cytochrome C
Cytochrome C

How does comparing cytochrome c protein provide genetic evidence for common ancestry?

To compare cytochrome c sequences, they need to be aligned so that the maximum number of positions containing the same amino acids can be determined. The more similarity there is between two molecules, the more recently they have evolved from a common ancestor.

Which organism is the most similar to human cytochrome c sequence?

chimpanzees, the protein molecule called cytochrome c, which serves a vital function in respiration within cells, consists of the same 104 amino acids in exactly the same order. It differs, however, from the cytochrome c of rhesus monkeys by 1 amino acid, from that of horses by 11 additional amino…

Do any of the organisms have the same number of differences from human cytochrome c?

None of the organisms have the same number of difference from the human Cytochrome C. In situations like this, we can decide which is more closely related to humans by comparing anatomy structures, evolutionary tree or comparing them to the human genes by using another protein.

Why would the scientist compare the amino acid sequences of proteins common to those similar species?

Amino acid sequence differences are the only useful data for constructing accurate cladograms of the species. Amino acid sequence differences provide evidence of gene flow among the species. Amino acid sequence differences reflect the accumulated differences in the DNA of the species.

How two species can have identical cytochrome c and still be different species?

Explain how two species can have identical cytochrome-c and still be different species. Chickens and turkeys might have evolved from a common ancestor fairly recently and so have the same amino acid sequences for cytochrome-c. (They might have different sequences for other proteins.)


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Why do closely related organisms have similar cytochrome c?

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Cytochrome c is the most stable and abundant member of the class, and it has … this gene has a very similar nucleotide sequence in all organisms (that is, …

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Which of the following organisms is most related to humans based on the number of similarities in amino acid sequence?

The amino acid sequence between humans and chimpanzees are identical while between the rhesus monkey, there is a difference of one amino acid in comparison. This table shows that the amino acid sequence compared from humans are more closely related to chimpanzees.

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Which of the following was found to have a cytochrome c identical to that of humans?

Cytochrome C is a protein found in mitochondria and is used in studying the evolutionary relationships of animals. Human cytochrome C and chimpanzee cytochrome c are identical in all 104 amino acids. Our close relationship with chimpanzees is revealed by this high degree of resemblance.

Is it correct to say that the more closely related organisms are the more close their DNA sequence is?

Answer: yes. identical dna gives clone/ twins.

How cytochrome c provides evidence of evolution?

Cytochrome c is a highly conserved ~12 kDa protein consisting of a single 104 amino acid peptide with a single heme group, which is covalently attached to Cys14 and Cys17. Because of its ubiquitous nature and sequence homology, cytochrome c has been used as a model protein for molecular evolution.

Why do organisms with close biochemical similarities show stronger?

Why do organisms with close biochemical similarities show stronger evolutionary relationships? * They have a common ancestor and have the same kind of proteins. They possess same vestigial structure that made their evolutionary relationship closer.

How was it determined that monkeys and cows are more closely related than monkeys and fish?

For example, the cytochrome c of monkeys and cows is more similar than the cytochrome c of monkeys and fish. Such similarities and differences suggest that monkeys and cows ate more closely related than are monkeys and fish. Scientists have similarly compared the biochemistry of universal blood proteins.

Which DNA is most similar to the common ancestor DNA?

Human and chimp DNA is so similar because the two species are so closely related. Humans, chimps and bonobos descended from a single ancestor species that lived six or seven million years ago. As humans and chimps gradually evolved from a common ancestor, their DNA, passed from generation to generation, changed too.


Lecture 07, concept 19: Cytochrome C

Lecture 07, concept 19: Cytochrome C
Lecture 07, concept 19: Cytochrome C

Images related to the topicLecture 07, concept 19: Cytochrome C

Lecture 07, Concept 19: Cytochrome C
Lecture 07, Concept 19: Cytochrome C

Which organism is most closely related to humans?

Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and their extinct ancestors form a family of organisms known as the Hominidae. Researchers generally agree that among the living animals in this group, humans are most closely related to chimpanzees, judging from comparisons of anatomy and genetics.

Which organisms are most closely related Why do you say so?

Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and their extinct ancestors form a family of organisms known as the Hominidae. Researchers generally agree that among the living animals in this group, humans are most closely related to chimpanzees, judging from comparisons of anatomy and genetics.

How can scientists tell how closely related two organisms are?

Molecular clocks are used to determine how closely two species are related by calculating the number of differences between the species’ DNA sequences or amino acid sequences. These clocks are sometimes called gene clocks or evolutionary clocks.

Is there more variation at the DNA level or the protein sequence level when comparing related organisms?

Therefore, two organisms which are distantly related may have many differences in their DNA sequence, but have less differences in their amino acid sequence and thus can be compared at this level more easily.

Why do you think it’s better to compare proteins instead of DNA when looking for homologous genes?

For DNA we usually use identity matrices, while for protein more sensitive matrices like PAM and BLOSUM are used. This allows better search results. Proteins are rarely mutated during evolution. Due to their conservation, searching them reveals remote evolutionary relationships.

How do you think different amino acid sequences would affect organisms explain your answer?

Differences in amino acids chains can lead to differences in a protein (in shape and function). This could alter the trait they code for. For example, the protein may not be functional if the amino acid sequence is changed. It could lead to positive, netural, or negative changes.

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Which molecules are used in comparing relationships among species?

In order to compare the evolutionary relationships among species, the scientists used cytochrome-c protein.

Do you agree that the more differences in amino acid sequence the more closely related organisms are?

Biologists believe that the greater the similarity between the amino acid sequences of two organisms, the closer their relationship. Conversely, the greater the differences, the more distant the relationship.

How many different species are represented in the cytochrome c amino acid sequences?

The amino-acid sequence of cytochrome c was determined for five different species of vertebrates. The table below shows the number of differences in the sequences between each pair of species.

How many amino acid differences are there between a human and a kangaroo?

KANGAROO, THERE ARE SEVEN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE HEMOGLOBIN PROTEIN BETWEEN HUMANS AND KANGROOS. There is a difference of only one amino acid in one chain of hemoglobin between humans and gorillas. What might have caused this difference?

Do you agree that the more differences in amino acid sequence the more closely related organisms are?

Biologists believe that the greater the similarity between the amino acid sequences of two organisms, the closer their relationship. Conversely, the greater the differences, the more distant the relationship.

Why do organisms with close biochemical similarities show stronger?

Why do organisms with close biochemical similarities show stronger evolutionary relationships? * They have a common ancestor and have the same kind of proteins. They possess same vestigial structure that made their evolutionary relationship closer.


mr i explains: Making Genetic Comparisons using Proteins

mr i explains: Making Genetic Comparisons using Proteins
mr i explains: Making Genetic Comparisons using Proteins

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Mr I Explains: Making Genetic Comparisons Using Proteins
Mr I Explains: Making Genetic Comparisons Using Proteins

How do you think different amino acid sequences would affect organisms?

Differences in amino acids chains can lead to differences in a protein (in shape and function). This could alter the trait they code for. For example, the protein may not be functional if the amino acid sequence is changed. It could lead to positive, netural, or negative changes.

How do amino acid sequences provide evidence for evolution?

That two species and their common ancestor have similar DNA is strong evidence supporting evolution. Protein amino acid sequences can also be used to compare similarities between species. Proteins are made from amino acids and the sequence of these amino acids is controlled by genes.

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